New Brunswick

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Capital: Fredericton
Entered Confederation: 1867

New Brunswick is one of the four Atlantic provinces that make up the area known as the Maritimes. Open to the sea and bordering Québec and the American state of Maine, New Brunswick's architectural history reflects not only the contributions of the different peoples who settled there, but also the impact of industry, transportation, and trade.

The earliest builders in New Brunswick were the Micmac Indians who lived in seasonal camps, made up of large tents called 'wigwams'. The first Europeans to build permanent settlements in the area known as Acadia introduced building techniques and styles native to France. British influences dominated the 19th century architecture in the province, with several examples of domestic, religious, and commercial buildings remaining from the period. Today New Brunswick's economy is diversifying into communications, and this may ultimately influence the architecture of the province.

The Acadians that settled in New Brunswick built houses in a style adapted from centuries-old French building technology. One type of house was made using a technique known as colombage bousillé . A more widely used building method was called pièce sur pièce. Wood was the most affordable and available material in the Maritimes, but it was also valued for its insulation properties, which are very important in the changing and often damp coastal climate. Another group, American Loyalists, introduced the Cape Cod Cottage, a style of domestic architecture already adapted to the coastal climate. The architecture of the province reflects the blending of French, British, and American influences on the area's architecture.

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