Beaux Arts Style
The result of a mix of historical styles and classical building plans that was taught at the Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris during the 19th century. The school and the style were very influential in 19th and early 20th century North America.

Boomtown architecture
Describes the architecture of frontier towns that were built quickly and cheaply. A typical characteristic of boomtown architecture is the false front, a tall facade that covers a lower building.

Cape Cod Cottage
A building introduced by the Loyalists from New England. Generally a simple wood frame house with a gabled roof and shingle siding. Characteristic of east coast architecture in the United States. Since the form was inexpensive and well adapted to the climate in Atlantic Canada the style became one of the most widely used in the Maritimes.

Cast iron.
Iron cast into molds, used as posts for building frames in the 19th and early 20th century. Cast iron was also used to make decorative details on building facades.

Chateau style
The style based on French Medieval castles, characterized by steep roofs and turrets, that was first used by the architects designing the grand railway hotels that were built in Canada's major cities from coast to coast. The style became recognised as typically Canadian and was adopted for different building types.

City Beautiful Movement
Inspired by the urban planning of the 1893 Chicago World Fair, this is a movement dedicated to promoting classically planned cities that combined urban activity with green spaces.

Thin wooden planks applied horizontally, one overlapping the next, used as weatherproof siding on buildings.

Classical, Classicm.
Derived from (or based on) the architecture of Ancient Greece or Rome.

Colombage Bousille
This is a technique where the frame of a cabin is constructed of vertical timber posts and the space between them filled with a mixture of plaster and straw.

A mixture of cement, sand, gravel and water that hardens into a stone- like substance. It can be poured into molds to make concrete blocks, or to make the frame of a building, or even to form the entire building.

The skeleton of building, made of wood, cast iron, steel or concrete, that supports the walls and roof.

French stone house
The architecture of New France was influenced by the buildings styles of northern France, where most of the settlers came from. Houses made of stone with steep gabled roofs and dormer windows are typical of a building type common to northern France that was used extensively in Québec.

Gabled roof
A roof that slopes on two sides.

Georgian style
The dominant style in British architecture during the time of the Kings George (1714-1830). It is characterized by simple, elegant buildings with classical features. This style was particularly favoured by British immigrants and United Empire Loyalists who came from the U.S. to settle in Canada.

Hipped roof
A roof that slopes on four sides.

Mansard roof
A roof with double slopes that often includes dormer windows.

Modern architecture, modernism
One of the most important architectural movements of the 20th century. Simple, geometric building forms are characterized by steele or concrete frames and glass sidding. (also known as International Style)

Pièce sur pièce
A technique which consists of building up walls of squared logs laid horizontally with their ends notched to fit one into the next. The gaps between the logs were filled with moss and then plastered over.

Post and beam
A method of constructing building frames that uses horizontal beams layed on vertical posts.

Reinforced concrete
Concrete that is poured over steel rods or steel mesh to augment its strength.

Second Empire style
A style that originated during the Second Empire in France, from 1852 to 1870. It is characterized by the Mansard roof and a lot of decorative details.

A standard sized unit, usually made of wood, used forcovering walls or roofs, applied (layed on) in an overlapping fashion.

Long, thin wooden planks with notched edges that interlock, applied horizontally to an exterior wall, one above the other. Used for weatherproofing.

A material used to cover the outside of building to make it weatherproof. Different types of siding include wood planks and shingles, imitation brick asphalt, aluminum, steel, vinyl and glass.

Turf, or the surface of the ground that can be carved into bricks and used for building.

Trading posts
A building or group of buildings that served as general store, trade counters, residence for the post manager (known as the factor) and sometimes the base for a garrison of soldiers. Trading posts were built out of squared logs using a French Canadian design, and could be found along the undeveloped frontier.

Structures that are built without the help of an architect. These are buildings that are built using local materials, and that respond to local concerns rather than architectural fashions. Almost any types of building can be called vernacular.

Building Canada C.A. 101 Pop Quiz Overview