Beaux Arts Style
The result of a mix of historical styles and classical building
plans that was taught at the Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris during the 19th
century. The school and the style were very influential in 19th and early
20th century North America.
Describes the architecture of frontier towns that were built quickly
and cheaply. A typical characteristic of boomtown architecture is the false
front, a tall facade that covers a lower building.
Cape Cod Cottage
A building introduced by the Loyalists from New England. Generally a simple wood frame house
with a gabled roof and shingle siding. Characteristic
of east coast architecture in the United States. Since the form was inexpensive and well adapted
to the climate in Atlantic Canada the style became one of the most widely used in the Maritimes.
Iron cast into molds, used as posts for building frames in the
19th and early 20th century. Cast iron was also used to make decorative
details on building facades.
The style based on French Medieval castles, characterized by steep
roofs and turrets, that was first used by the architects designing the
grand railway hotels that were built in Canada's major cities from coast
to coast. The style became recognised as typically Canadian and was adopted
for different building types.
City Beautiful Movement
Inspired by the urban planning of the 1893 Chicago World Fair, this
is a movement dedicated to promoting classically planned cities that combined
urban activity with green spaces.
Thin wooden planks applied horizontally, one overlapping the next,
used as weatherproof siding on buildings.
Derived from (or based on) the architecture of Ancient Greece
This is a technique where the frame of a cabin is constructed
of vertical timber posts and the space between them filled with a mixture
of plaster and straw.
A mixture of cement, sand, gravel and water that hardens into a
stone- like substance. It can be poured into molds to make concrete blocks,
or to make the frame of a building, or even to form the entire building.
The skeleton of building, made of wood, cast iron, steel or concrete,
that supports the walls and roof.
French stone house
The architecture of New France was influenced by the buildings
styles of northern France, where most of the settlers came from. Houses
made of stone with steep gabled roofs and dormer windows are typical of
a building type common to northern France that was used extensively in
A roof that slopes on two sides.
The dominant style in British architecture during the time of the
Kings George (1714-1830). It is characterized by simple, elegant buildings
with classical features. This style was particularly favoured by British
immigrants and United Empire Loyalists who came from the U.S. to settle
A roof that slopes on four sides.
A roof with double slopes that often includes dormer windows.
Modern architecture, modernism
One of the most important architectural movements of the 20th century.
Simple, geometric building forms are characterized by steele or concrete
frames and glass sidding. (also known as International Style)
Pièce sur pièce
A technique which consists of building up walls of squared
logs laid horizontally with their ends notched to fit one into the next.
The gaps between the logs were filled with moss and then plastered over.
Post and beam
A method of constructing building frames that uses horizontal beams
layed on vertical posts.
Concrete that is poured over steel rods or steel mesh to augment its
Second Empire style
A style that originated during the Second Empire in France, from
1852 to 1870. It is characterized by the Mansard roof and a lot of decorative
A standard sized unit, usually made of wood, used forcovering walls
or roofs, applied (layed on) in an overlapping fashion.
Long, thin wooden planks with notched edges that interlock, applied
horizontally to an exterior wall, one above the other. Used for weatherproofing.
A material used to cover the outside of building to make it weatherproof.
Different types of siding include wood planks and shingles, imitation brick
asphalt, aluminum, steel, vinyl and glass.
Turf, or the surface of the ground that can be carved into bricks
and used for building.
A building or group of buildings that served as general store,
trade counters, residence for the post manager (known as the factor) and
sometimes the base for a garrison of soldiers. Trading posts were built
out of squared logs using a French Canadian design, and could be found
along the undeveloped frontier.
Structures that are built without the help of an architect. These
are buildings that are built using local materials, and that respond to
local concerns rather than architectural fashions. Almost any types of
building can be called vernacular.